Here is a model for a partnership oath that is widespread in many countries: cities, cities and cities with twinning cities and partnerships are sometimes made for political purposes. In 2013, the city of Gyongyus, Hungary, was associated with the Azerbaijani city of Shusha and signed the partnership agreement with representatives of the Azerbaijani government; Hungary recognized Shusha as a de jure part of Azerbaijan, although it was controlled at the time and until 2020 by the unrecognized Armenian and Artsakh armed forces.  In 2003, Preston City Councillors in England attempted to establish a partnership with the Palestinian city of Nablus in the name of solidarity.  The term “twin cities” is most widely used in the United Kingdom; the term “sister cities” is generally used for agreements with cities in North and South America.   On the European continent, the most commonly used terms are `twin cities`, `twin cities`, `twin cities` and `friendship cities`. The European Commission uses the term `twin cities` and refers to the process as `twinning cities`.   Spain uses the term “ciudades hermanadas,” which means “sister cities.” Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic use the partner city (De) / miasto partnerskie (Pl) / partnerské mesto (Cz), which means “partner city” or “partner city”. France uses twin city (twinning, twinning city or city) and Italy a gemellaggio (partnership) and comune gemellato (common partner).  In the Netherlands, the terms “Partnerstad” or “Stedenband” (“urban borrowing” when it comes to mutual assistance). In Greece, the word “Adelfopiisi – Fraternity” was adopted. In Iceland, the terms vinab`ir (friends cities) and Vinaborgir (friends cities) are used. In the former Soviet bloc, “twin cities” and “twin cities” were used, with the “Ru” (sworn brother cities).   The first known twinning in Europe was 836 between Paderborn and Le Mans, France.
  From 1905, Keighley, in West Yorkshire, England, had a twinning with the French communes of Suresnes and Puteaux.   The first modern twinning recorded between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in the North, France, in 1920, after the end of the First World War.     It was originally the adoption of the French city; Formal partnership charters were not exchanged until 1986.  A recent study concluded that geographic distance has little or no influence on the choice of a partner city.  Twin cities are often chosen for similarities; For example, some fifteen cities are in Wales with cities in Brittany and Oxford with Bonn, Leiden, Grenoble and other university towns.  In Italy, Rovigo is a good example of pairing with Viernheim, Bedford and Tulcea. Many former cities of West Germany are with former East German cities on the city; these twinnings of cities were established before the fall of the Iron Curtain. The partnerships between Hanover and Leipzig, both of which have large exhibition sites, or between Hamburg and Dresden, are famous examples. The first U.S.-German twinning was found in 1947 between Worthington, Minnesota and Crailsheim.  St. Petersburg in Russia holds the record for the most partnership agreements with other communities.  In June 2012, the Scottish village of Dull and the American town of Boring, Oregon, agreed to give up their communities to promote tourism in both places and played to their names.
   Although the term is often used in a synonymous manner, with the term “friendship city,” this may mean a more limited relationship to a twin city relationship, and friendship city relations are mayor-mayor agreements.  The twinning of cities is not a new concept for human society.